1.) Pure bred breeding associations, stud-books, registry and breeding rules:

a) Pure bred breeding in general is managed by associations according to civil law of its country. Just in few eastern countries there is an "official acknowledgement", clubs are charged by the state or need a special permission for the stud-books.

Therefore, in the western world, especially in Europe, there are many hundreds of clubs and associations of pure bred breeders: in any case a majority of clubs than dog breeds. For each dog breed there are various clubs, often in competition against each other.

Continuously there are founded new associations, new dog breeds are bred and the standard is often changed by the club.

One of various example makes it understanding:

Within just few years out of the poodle several new types of different poodles have come out, in form, color and weight.

Same is valid for the Terrier, Dachshund and for all the other dog breeds. Otherwise the rise of pure bred dogs and new dog breeds would not be possible. And that is why the rules for the breeds are continuously changed by the associations. But not only the outside phenotype (genetic) of certain dog breeds have been changed, also in character of the dogs various breeding aims have been put up. This led to extreme breeding and examination which contradict to the aims. For centuries the various associations (such as e.g. the Cynologic Society) had the rule, that the amount which is more than six puppies in a litter has to be killed. This killing of dogs according to club rules has been tackled and denied by dog breeders and dog lovers as well as animal care members. Meanwhile the animal care laws of many European countries forbid the killing of animals.

Out of these contradictory attitudes and breeding aims it is explainable that breeders and dog fanciers founded own, new clubs and determined their own breeding rules. That was the beginning of the competition between clubs and breeders. Also Switzerland being the oldest democracy has club independence. In this way also here several new clubs came up.

b) The general, basic breeding rules in all the pure bred dog breeding on earth are:

* parents (sire and dam) have to be at an age to be able to be bred and need to be healthy, they are not allowed to have visible faults concerning the breed. That is why breeding dogs are judged at dog shows.

* The mating has to be certified by the owner of the stud; the stud owner leaves the dates about the origin of the stud to the breeder (owner of the bitch).

* Litters (puppies) are being checked by the breeding responsible before registering them to the stud-book.

* The breeder (owner of the bitch) announces the litter for registration to the stud-book. He is responsible for all the statements which are necessary for writing the pedigree. These basic breeding rules are partly being supplemented by additional club rules:

- Clubs ask for the membership of dog breeders, when they want to have pedigrees, other clubs don't.

- Clubs only "accept" the pure bred dog that has a pedigree of the own association, other clubs "accept" the pedigrees of other associations.

- Clubs make the rating of a pure bred dog responsible from the membership of the owner at the club, also from the fact that the pedigree of the pure bred dog has been confiscated by another club and then a transcript (copy) has been made; other clubs make the judgement of the dog solely dependent from the actual signs of the breed and the actual performance of the dog, out of regard of the pedigree and club membership of the owner.

These rules only serve the competition between the clubs.


2.) Pedigrees for pure bred dogs; writing of pedigrees as well as value and statement of the pedigree:

The pedigree is the proof of the origin of a pure bred dog, it certifies the statements of the breeder. The pedigree is no achievement of a club in the pure bred dog breeding, it is the exclusive confirmation of a breeding attainment following the statements of the breeder.

Out of reasons of competition between breeders and clubs the pedigree is alleged with achievements and attributes, that really can't be possible:

a) Pedigrees are written for puppies with an age of about 8 weeks. When checking the puppies at this age some faults according to breed can partly not be seen, the development of the puppy cannot be predetermined. Partly the development is conditioned concerning to the breed (inheritance), partly to the environment (sickness, feeding). That is why all the breeders' associations prescribe a "breeding confirmation examination" with the adult dog. The development is done, now faults can be seen. This examination could be left out, if it could already be done with the puppy. A pure bred dog with pedigree can have faults that cause banning of breeding when he is grown up. Out of winning parents not automatically winning puppies are born.

b) Clubs receive the statements about the origin of puppies only from the breeder; actually the club has no influence and no control on these statements. Clubs (stud-books) need to trust these statements and can only take charge of them and certify them.

Stud owners and owners of the bitch certify the mating to the stud-book or the club. Stud-book and club cannot determine if the named stud has mated the named bitch, also not if the bitch of a breeder (knowingly or not) has been bred by several studs (also out of other breeds) in one season. It is therefore possible that one bitch whelps puppies out of various studs.

The scientifical value of a pedigree for the owner or a dog is out of the question. The proof about the origin of the dog is no scientifical usable statement. The technical value of a pedigree depends in writing down and certifying the statements of the breeder.

Pedigrees of pure bred dogs are often being misapplied to make the inexperienced dog buyers believe that the pedigree is a guarantee for the breed, the breeding value and performance of the dog. Mostly with that mean it is tried to justify the excessive price for a pure bred dog. Pedigrees are also misapplied in the competition between breeding associations.

3.) Pedigrees for pure bred dogs, associations and breeders of pure bred dogs:

a) There are various (partly competing against each other) breeding associations for all the pure bred dogs. Same counts for the Yorkshire Terrier which belongs to the most liked and well-known small breeds. There are several associations in Switzerland which have stud-books. All the stud-books - and that is so all over the world around pure bred dog breeding - write pedigrees for puppies by copying and certifying the statements of the breeders. Thereto belongs the acceptance of the statements in the pedigrees of the parents. Otherwise the writing of a pedigree would not be possible.

b) The pedigree belongs to the pure bred dog. The buyer of a dog receives it from the breeder, not from the club. He disposes of the dog and the pedigree.

Actually only the owner of a dog decides if he wants to breed with the dog, if he wants to turn member in a club and which stud-book of a club writes the pedigrees for his puppies.

c) If a club could deny that pedigrees, which the club has written, are not allowed to be used for certifying the origin of puppies out of certain dogs pure bred dog breeding would practically not be possible any more. In Switzerland it would be not possible to breed with a dog out of a foreign country; only pure bred dog breeding within the clubs and with dogs that have their pedigrees from the same club would be possible in Switzerland.

Breeders could only sell their puppies if they would inform the buyer about that e.g. he would only be allowed to breed his stud to a bitch with the same pedigree.

d) Daily practice in holding the stud-books justifies that the taking over of the statements of pedigrees in all the pure bred dog breeding is (should be) a matter-of-course. This evidence is offered by the clubs themselves. That this is incontestable concerning to justice has been certified by several court decisions. It need not be dealt with it here.

The practice of many associations and stud-books is questionable, when they confiscate pedigrees of other clubs (being in concurrence), rewrite them and replace them with own pedigrees. And if in addition to that e.g. the change of the name of the breeder (kennel) or other statements about the origin is done, then this pedigree of the dog is garbled.

This confiscating and rewriting of pedigrees of other associations is done to get into concurrence with other associations, to get members and to make earnings (rewriting fees).




In the end I want to thank Walter Winkler, Salzburg, president and one of the promotors of the European Dog Sport Union and the Austrian Dog Sport Union. Having been an officer of the Austrian Criminal Investigation Department, breeder and handler of German Shepherd Dogs, he has been distinguished multiply for many engagements in the police dog and avalanche dog relay, among others with the highest merit of the German Shepherd Club Augsburg (SV/FCI) for his lifesaving engagement in the avalanche dog relay (Dachstein area - searching for buried school-age children); afterwards he has been the of many years' standing general secretary of the Union Canine Internationale (UCI) in Brussels, which he had registered as the first cynolocig association under the Royal Government of King Baudouin.

As an acknowledgement for his neutral testimonial, which I have given here in a shortened form, I must admit, that with this it has been possible for me to view the international association happening in the cynologic field unmanipulated, open, neutral and without prejudice.

His support and help by all means was not only encouraging but invaluable. At the annual General Meeting on March 23rd, 1993 he has been voted to the first honorary member in our club.

Swiss Yorkshire Terrier Club (SYC)

The president
R. Wirth